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BOTOX® Cosmetic to slim the face: Some patients have very active jaw muscles that give their face a very square shape. These are called the masseter muscles and are the main muscles used for chewing and biting. Injecting BOTOX® Cosmetic in these muscles can reduce their size and give a square face a much more tapered or oval appearance. In addition, many patients grind their teeth and this also can cause increase in the size of the masseter muscle as well as pain, and tenderness. Our doctors use BOTOX® Cosmetic to assist in the treatment of tooth grinding and facial pain.
You may feel that the lines between your eye brows make you look tired or old, or that the folds across the your forehead are too prominent. Also, years of squinting can contribute to the crows’ feet” on the sides of the eyes. People have many reasons for being curious about BoTox® Cosmetic. Ask the SHFM staff about BoTox Cosmetic to find out if it is right for you.
Botox® (onabotulinum toxin A) was licensed specifically for the treatment of chronic migraine in July 2010 by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Botox® has not been shown to be effective for any other headache type (e.g. episodic migraine, tension-type headache, cluster headache) as yet. The information below outlines the evidence for the use of botulinum toxin in headache.
The light chain (~50 kD – amino acids 1-448) acts as a zinc (Zn2+) endopeptidase similar to tetanus toxin with proteolytic activity located at the N-terminal end (see image below). The heavy chain (~100 kD – amino acids 449-1280) provides cholinergic specificity and is responsible for binding the toxin to presynaptic receptors; it also promotes light-chain translocation across the endosomal membrane.
One report of a cohort of clinically defined wound botulism cases found that the serum mouse bioassay was only 68% sensitive in confirming infection ( Wheeler 2009 ). The authors pointed out that physicians should be aware of the test’s limitations and base their final diagnosis on clinical criteria when the mouse bioassay produces negative results.